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Most of the marine protected areas (MPAs) around the world, estimated to number about 5000, have been established both on an ad hoc basis and through systematic planning processes. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) requires that Party states establish, by 2012, comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative national and regional systems of protected areas, and that there should be effective conservation of at least 10% of each of the world's ecological regions by 2010. Many countries have established their own national targets which provide an incentive for the introduction of a systematic conservation planning approach to the establishment of MPAs, and there are now many initiatives to develop ecologically representative MPA networks (UNEP-WCMC, 2008, p. i).

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Since 2006, The Pew Charitable Trusts Global Ocean Legacy project has worked with indigenous groups, community leaders, government officials, scientists and other organizations to help protect the

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Belize

Belize’s biodiversity is exposed to various direct anthropogenic and natural threats system.

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Namibia

The meeting point between Namibia’s hot desert sands and the cold Benguela ocean current harbours rich biodiversity and some of the most abundant marine life concentrations in the world.

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The project (developed in Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde and Sierra Leone) contributed to identifying the risks faced by the sea turtles as well as monitoring the species and defining new conse

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The project has improved the surveillance and monitoring capacity of IBAP (Institute of Biodiversity and Protected Areas) and enhanced the relationship between local populations, fishermen and the

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Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands is one of the most vulnerable nations in the world to the impacts of climate change and has economies that are dependent on declining fisheries.

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This Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper presents case studies of the policy, governance an

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