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Marine and coastal ecosystems provide many services to human society, including food and other goods, shoreline protection, water quality maintenance, waste treatment, support of tourism and other cultural benefits, and maintenance of the basic global life support systems.

The provision of these services is threatened by the worldwide degradation of marine and coastal ecosystems. Fisheries are in global decline. Coastal habitats have been modified and lost, and in many cases the rate of degradation is increasing. Habitat loss and modification result in a loss of ecosystem services and also threaten biodiversity (UNEP, 2006, p. 7).


Implementing coral reef conservation and management through a community-based approach emphasizin


The report has been prepared pursuant to paragraph 309 of General Assembly resolution 69/245 of 2


Restored mangroves serve as 'green infrastructure' and buffer the coastal communities from climate-related storm surges and floods.


Community management of coral reefs, mangroves, fishing zones, and tropical forests has led to improved livelihoods and the restoration of a unique marine and coastal ecosystem.


The central activity of Mediterranean Conservation Society is to promote community‐centered conservation of marine and coastal ecosystems in Gökova Bay.


More than 2.6 billion people rely on the ocean's fish as their number one source of protein.